Education management and education administration have many times been used by authors either synonymously or distinctively. However, whereas it appears easier to define administration and management with appreciable distinction in education either of the terms invariably connotes more or less of the other
Overview of education administration and management
Babalola (2006) sees education management as being synonymous with strategizing. planning. Organizing. running governance and superVision of the entire process of teaching and learning that takes place at all levels of the formal education system. While quoting the difficulty and risk of providing an all encompassing definition of concepts, Nte (2005) admitted that educational administration and educational management are terms used interchangeably.
He therefore defined education administration as concerned with the bringing of human and material resources together for effective and functional teaching and learning in schools, focusing on procuring resources, articulated fragmented human efforts, optimizing and maximizing performance for the purposes of achieving educational goals.
While attempting to distinguish between education management and education administration states that education management to an extent encompasses education administration and planning Thus, Education Administration + Planning Education Management. On the other hand, Peretomode (1991) defined educational management as concerned with the planning and formulation of educational policies or programmes with a view to achieving & educational goals.
The organizing, coordinating. controlling and evaluating human and material resources are necessary to achieve stated educational objectives. He further saw education administration as thesystematic arrangement of human and material resources and programmes that are available for education and carefully using them systematicaly within defined guidelines to achieve educational goals.
However agreed that “both terms have come to be defined over the years essentialy in terms of the coordination and integra Over theand materials to accomplish (educational) objectives.
Besides, the process involved in education management which will be discussed ater in this chapter, there are several which other tasks which require efticient and efective management. Such tasks have overtime come to form the major scope of education administration and include:
- Curriculum Development and Instruction
- Pupil /student personnel administration
- Staff personnel education administration
- School/community relation
- Finance, business and facilities management
Curriculum Development and Instructions:
Kenezevi (1975) defined curriculum as “all the experience that are provided to the learner under the direction of an institution. For education- is an instrument by and through which the schools seek to translate educational hopes and aspirations into reality. Instruction On the other hand refers to the teaching/ learning process through which a curriculum is imparted and absorbed.
Curriculum development and instruction is the soul of every school system and poses the most challenging task in education administration. Kenezevich (1975) further observes that the principle of administrative leadership in curriculum and instruction is to make great teaching promises to stimulate greater eftectiveness among all teachers.
Under this move, any one in charge of education administration should be able to know when new technologies in resęarch findings develop at the classroom level- this can be achieved by the formulation of a new curriculum and instructional program since the final focus of curriculum and instructional leadership is the people. learning outcome (Kenezevich, 1975).
Pupil/Student Personnel Education Administration:
Curriculum and Instruction are developed in all education system as a means to an end, the end being the meaningful transfer of ideas as outlined in the curriculum to the learner, the studernt. The above is the fundamental objective for which schools exist. Students as Kenezevich observed “are the potential clients of educational institutions each school system must come to grasp into the challenges of creating an organizational structure and adminstrative procedures to measure
The delivery of the educational services derived by its clients Pupil personnel administration is concerned with the identification, admission, Registration, enroliment and classification of school age children and other learners, the comprehensive and development of abilities, interests and needs of individuals at various levels of maturity within the school system (Kenezevich, 1975).
Staff Personnel in Education administration
This basically involves the recruitment, selection, designation, orientation and enrollment of personnels involved in the teaching process and other complimentary options in education administration and is normally emphasized in a variety of factors. As Kenezevich observed, the numerous types and development of professional and non- professional personnel in schools are influenced by many factors, the most important of which are pupil enrolment and the nature or scope of the learning experience provided.
The orientation and re-orientation of staff personnel is a crucial responsibility in education administration. When new teachers are recruited, the education administration is saddled with the all important role to develop the plan of activities to enable the staff to become familiar with other teachers, students, the school environment and the community to understand the major demands of his job, the major purpose of the school and the expectations of the school head. teachers, students and the community (Ndu, Ocho and Okeke, 1997).
Such plan of activities as Kenezevich (1975) suggested may include such practices as pre-school workshops, carefully preferred handbooks for new teachers, special letters and programs of welcome, assigning existing staff members approval supervision to help new teachers This he admitted is necessary in view of the fact that”teachers new in the school system experience variety of problems: Adjusting to assignments, getting acquainted with the cormmunity, the system and the school, coming to know colleague, and the system as a whole”.
The views of Ezeocha (1990) describe the importance of school communitY relation in education administration “the school and the community are the institutions of man which are inseparable” The school exists for the cormmunity and the community on the other hand exists and acts as client to
the school in that withc ut the community there would not be the school Therefore, the scope of school administration includes the management of school-community relationship, The school administrator must regard the school- community relationship management as one of his cardinal responsibilities (Ndu, Ocho, and Okeke, 1997). This is of primary importance because the school derives most of its strength and support from the community in which it is situated.
The school as a social organization serves the needs of the society and the individuals that make it up. More than any other public institution, the school derives its existence and is continuously fed from the community which supplies both material and human resources used in the school. The school and its professional staff cannot function effectively without the support of the community.
That is why Jones (1955) in Ndu et al (1997) state that ‘no school has ever operated in a social vacuum apart from the society it serves The participation of the community in school education administration has been officially recognized and entrenched at the various levels of our educational system. At the primary and secondarY level Parents eacher Association (P.TA.) and the Citizens Advisory Groups. At the tertiary level: The council drawn
up from members of the public and the institution in question, responsible for formulating major policies guiding the administration of the institutions including those of the recruitment, promotion and termination of staff.
Ethical Basis of Education Administration
Ethical issues have to do with moral values what is good or bad acceptable or not acceptable. It is worthy of note that what distinguishes human behaviors from that of animals is ethical considerations. Ethical considerations should be central in educational administrative decision and practices as they are in interpersonal relationships.
The increasing immorality and indiscipline in Nigerian society has tremendousiy arected our educational system negatively, Consequenty this has resulted to the glaring lack of ethical considerations in dministrative decisions and practices in the educational system which has contributed in the educational system which contributed more to indiscipline in the schools.
What are some of these ethical issues that administrators and teachers encounter in education? we are not dealing with legalities here because in ethical issues individual judgments are required to determine what is right or wrong action (Ijeoma 2001). Teaching your lessons anacovering the schenme of work, being on time to classes and handling your students with regard, loyalty to supervisors and agencies and maintaining confidentiality in matters of secrecy. Pubic officers should not use their offices to further their own interests.
Do not accept gifts/favours except as appreciation after completion of an assignment. As leaders, people are looking at us and attentively. They wish to be led; they wish to be given very clear and true directions. People looking at us shouid know unmistakably and unequivocally where they are heading (Asouzu, 2003). Too much rationalization contuses and ,complicates situations.
In as much as we should be critical in our attitude to life, there are certain values that constitute the foundation of healthy human relationship and these must be upheld unequivocally. These are those values and virtues that define us as creatures with a special destiny. When truthfulness, sincerity, honesty and sense of justice become matters of equivocation, human relationship starts to die a natural death.
The same is applicable where people have lost the sense of shame, decency and decorum. Undue deviation from certain accepted and legitimate codes of conduct brings absolutely,nothing, but confusion. We must be able to say in unmistakable words what things are and how they are done.
The Process of Management
EZeocha (1990), referencing to chamber’s etymological dictionary of the English language defines process as “A going Torward, gradual process, the whole proceedings in an action”. This implies that process is a way or method or technique that is step-by-step way of doing things.
Management on the other hand is theorganization and utilization of the human and material resources in a paricular system for achievement of identified objectives (Ogunu, 2001). It has also been defined as a social process designed to ensure the cooperation participation, intervention and involvement of others in the effect.
What is Process of Management
From the foregoing definition of management and process, one can define process of management as the method or technique or step-by- step way by which a manager (administrator) directs and controls life in an organization in order to achieve tne desired 80als or it is a way of, coordinating and controlling the scarce resources, manpower, finance and capital equipment so as to achieve the desired objectives (Ezeocha, 1990).
Several prominent scholars in education had made attempts to analyze the process of management into segments (elements). Hoy and Miskel (1982) projected the following scholars: Henri Fayol (1914-925) and Luther Gulick (1892)
Fayol a French mining engineer and successtul achievement of a given or predetermined objective (Unesco, 1979)
Executive who later taught administration took a scientific approach to administration. According to him, management consists of the following five basic processes or functions or elements:
P – Planning
O – Organizing
C – Commanding
C – Coordinating
Gulick amplified these functions in answer to the question ‘what is the work of the Chief Executive”? He gave the answer as POSDCORB which is-an acronym representing the seven elements which Gulick and Urwick analyzed as the constituents of the management process.
P – Planning: To study the future and arrange the plan operation.
O – Organizing: Build up material and human organization of the business, organizing both people and materials.
S – Staffing: personnel functions.
D – Directing: Continuous task of making decisions and embodying them in orders (Specific and general) serve as a leader.
Co – Co-ordinating: All important duty of interrelating the various parts of the work.
R – Reporting: Responsibility of informing those under the executive about what is going on. B Budgeting: Involves fiscal planning, accounting and control.
Many other renwned scholars have analyzed further the management process since the publication of Gulick and Urwicks seven elements. It is advisable to use directing in place of commanding because commanding has a militant connotation.
No matter whatever actions a manager takes or wherever he functions, he must carry out the four basic functions of
In detailed explanation planning consists of:
- Determination of what to do and when and how to do it.
- Defining objectives, setting targets and determining
- operations to achieve maximum effectiveness,
- Gathering and analyzing information.
- Developing alternatives
- Preparing and communicating plans and decisions.
- Obtaining necessary facilities, equipment and staff to establish an efficient framework tor carrying out plans through process of determining work required to accomplish plans.
- Grouping component jobs into an orerly organizational structure.
- Establishing the structure of authoritY and coordinating machinery.
- Formulating and defining methods and procedures, Selecting trainin8 and intorming sta and obtaining other necessary resources.
In directing you
- Set detailed time and cost framework.
- Initiate and provide leadership in carrying out plans by making decisions.
- Issue specific instructions.
- Guide, motivate and supervise instruction.
- Evaluation of pertormance compared to plan.
- Reporting deviations in time for corrective action by Establishing standards and goals.
- Appraising pertormance and correcting deviations (Ogunu,2001).
Principles of Management in education administration
To ensure survival and attainment of education administration goals certain basic principles are necessary. These include according to Henry Fayol (1916) fourteen principles of management.
- Division of work.
- Parity of Authority and responsibility.
- Unity of command.
- 5. Unity of direction.
- Subordination of individual interest to the common goal.
- Stability of tenure
- Espirit de corps (in union, there is strength).
In 1952, Lyndall rwick identified ten basic principles ot management which include:
- Principle of objectivity.
- Principle of specialization.
- Principle of co-ordination.
- Principle of authority.
- Principle of responsibility.
- Principle of definition.
- Principle of correspondence responsibility 8& authority should correspond.
- Span of control.
- Principle of balance.
- Principle of continuity.
- Asouzu, 1.1. (2003) Effective leadership and the ambivalence of human interest: The Nigerian paradox in a compiementary perspective, Calabar: University of Calabar Press. Pg 192-143
- Babalola, J. B. (2006) Overview of educational management in J. B. Babalola, A. O. Ayeni, S. O. Adedeji, A. A. Suleiman, M. O. Arikewuyo (eds.) Education administeration and Management. houghts and Practice lbadan, Codat Publication.
- Ezeocha, P. A. (1990) Education administration and planning NSukka: Optimal Computer Solutions Ltd. Pg 22 23.
- Ijoma, 1. E. (2001) Strategies for resolving ethnical problems in school administration in N. A. Nwaogwu, E.. Ehianietalon, i. N. Ogunu and Mon Nwadiani (Eds) Current Issuesin Educational Management in Nigeria, Benin City: Nigeria Association for Education Administration and Planning Amibik Press Ltd. Pg 404 405.
- Kenezevich S. J. (1975), Administration of public education; New Tork: Happorand Row Publishers
- Ndu, A, Ocho, LO, and Okeke (I997): Dynamics of Education Administration and Management. The Nigerian perspective Akwa: Maks Publishers Ltd
- Nte, A. R. (2007) Foundation of educational management, Port Harcourt: Minson Nigeria Limited.
- Ogunu, M. (2001) Introduction to educational management. Benin City: Mobogun Publishers/Ambik Press Pg. 1-3.
- Peretomode, V. P. (1991) Educational administration applied concepts and theoretical perspectives, Lagos: Joja Educational Research and Publishers Limited.
- UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania (1979): Process of Educational Planning, Bangkok, Thailand Author.